New regulations set out the UK’s post Brexit data protection landscape. Ibrahim Hasan sets out the key points.
On 19th December 2018, just when you thought that you have finally made sense of the UK’s data protection regime, the government published new regulations with the catchy title, “The Data Protection, Privacy and Electronic Communications (Amendments etc) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019.” There are sixty-one pages of regulations to navigate, before 29 March 2019, with only one page of explanatory notes. And you thought Theresa May had problems!
Before you start reaching for the highlighters, marker pens and sticky notes (and maybe even smelling salts) it is important to bear in mind that the primary aim of the new regulations is “to make GDPR British” (my phrase). Yes dear readers, we will soon have our own (red, white and blue) version of GDPR. All the pain and cost of Brexit will have been worth it!
To understand the new regulations, we have to go “back to basics” (not my phrase). The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) came into force on 25 May 2018. Despite the UK leaving the EU on 29 March (or later – you never know! – or never, in which case ignore everything and wait for more blog posts!!!!), all EU laws, including GDPR, will automatically become part of UK domestic law due to the provisions of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018.
The EU version of GDPR, which the UK is bound by until exit day, contains many references to EU laws, institutions, currency and powers, amongst other things, which will cease to be relevant in the UK after Brexit. The Data Protection, Privacy and Electronic Communications (Amendments etc) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 amend GDPR to remove these references and replace them with British equivalents where applicable. From exit day this new amended version of GDPR will be imaginatively titled, the “UK GDPR”.
Chapter 3 of Part 2 of the DPA 2018 currently applies a broadly equivalent data protection regime to certain types of data processing to which the GDPR does not apply (“the applied GDPR”). For example, where personal data processing is related to immigration and to manual unstructured data held by a public authority covered by the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOI). The DPA 2018 applies GDPR standards to such data whilst adjusting those that would not work in the national context. Amongst other things, the new regulations merge this part into the UK GDPR.
Other provisions to note include:
- Regulation 5 makes provision concerning interpretation in relation to processing that prior to exit day was subject to the applied GDPR.
- Regulation 6 introduces Schedule 3, which makes consequential amendments to other legislation.
- Regulation 8 makes amendments to the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 (PECR) in light of provision made by the GDPR relating to the meaning of “consent”.
Part 3 of the DPA 2018 regulates the processing of personal data for law enforcement purposes implementing the Law Enforcement Directive (EU) 2016/680. This part will continue to apply, even after exit day, to competent authorities i.e. those that process personal data for the purposes of criminal offences or threats to public security e.g. the police, trading standards departments etc. Some minor amendments will be made to reflect the UK GDPR. Similarly Part 4 of the Act (processing of personal data by the Intelligence Services) and Parts 5 and 6 (Information Commissioner Powers and Enforcement) will remain in force.
The new regulations also deal with post Brexit international data transfers from the UK by amending the GDPR and adding additional provisions to the DPA 2018. However for the lawful transfer of personal data from the EU into the UK without additional safeguards being required, the UK will need to apply to the EU for adequacy status and join a list of 12 countries. These regulations attempt to make the UK version of GDPR as robust as the EU version. We will have to wait and see if the EU agrees.
The new regulations are currently in draft (you can follow their progress here). If approved they come into force on exit day, which is currently scheduled to be 29 March 2019, although it could be later. With all the uncertainties over the Brexit deal, I would not get the markers out just yet nor tear up your Act Now GDPR handbook!
Ibrahim Hasan is a solicitor and director of Act Now Training. This article first appeared on the Act Now Blog. Information on the company's courses can be found on Local Government Lawyer's courses and events section.
If you want to know more about the new regulations, Ibrahim is presenting a webinar on 28 January 2019 at 10 am.